World Diabetes day is celebrated every year all over the world.Diabetes doctors address and inform the audience about Diabetes and new development in Diabetes treatment.
What is Diabetes ? In human body , there is a gland called Pancreas located beneath the stomach. This gland produces a juice called “Insulin” in its a tiny place called “Icelets of Langerhans”. This juice is mixed directly in our blood. When we eat, it is converted into glucose. This glucose is the source of our strength or power. The glucose mix in our blood. It needs a source to take it to our muscle and burn there to produce strength. Insulin, produced by Pancreas is the only source who can bring glucose to our muscles and convert into strength. When our Pancreas stop producing insulin, glucose remain in our blood, and accumulate more glucose every day. High blood sugar is very harmful to our body.Its first bad effect attacks on our blood veins. It adhere inside inside veins, block them. It happens first in our feet. Blood doesn’t circulate in feet and they become numb, After some time, gangrene appear on foot. At worst, feet fingers or foot has to cut. It does not end here. High blood sugar effect on eyes and one can be blind if blood sugar remains uncontrolled for a long time. Diabetes is divided into two type :
Type 1 : Usually children are the most victims of this type.Pancreas does not produce a single drop of insulin. The patient of this type of diabetes needs to take insulin for the rest of life. Some parents let their children, specially if he is their only son, to drink juices instead of water at his age of 2 to 3 years. They believe that juice will keep him healthy. The boy keeps drinking juices. He don’t drink water, till he reaches the age of say 9 to 10 years. Here comes the unfortunate when suddenly parents come to know that their son has diabetic. I am not terrifying the parents. I am just trying to warn them that such love is some times dangerous.
Type 2 : Pancreas become sick and its production of insulin is reduced which is insufficient to burn glucose. This type of diabetes is common . Its ratio is 95% of total patients of type 1 and type 2 diabetes.
Type 1 & 2 Diabetes : In some cases it is noticed that a fat patient’s pancreas is producing enough insulin but the patient has all symptoms of diabetes. In such cases, the patient body resist the function of insulin.
Type 2 diabetes can be controlled with medicine. Medicine should be started as the diabetes is diagnosed. As the time passes, these medicine reduce their effect and a time comes when these medicines are useless. This the time when insulin injection is the last hope. It is strongly recommended to take insulin injection as soon as the diabetes is diagnosed to save/prevent from further complications related to diabetes.
1. Patient urine on very small intervals, say every hour and discharge is greater than normal.
2. Patient feel thirsty and drinks water more than average, still his/her lips feel dry.
3. Pain in legs.
5. Eye sight become weak. Patient’s sleep is disturbed.
6. Wounds take much time to heal up.
7. Patient feel as if feet are burning.
Living with Diabetes:
Diabetes is incurable. Up till now no medicine is found which can cure our weak/dead Pancreas, the source of insulin and has to take insulin regularly to keep the diabetes in control. There are 4 types of insulin available in the market :
1. Very short acting insulin known as Lispro- Its effect starts 5 minutes after taking s shot, reaches its peak within 1/2 hour and work best for 3 hours, It it used in emergencies.
2. Short acting Insulin known as Regular – It start working 1/2 hour after taking the injection, reaches at peak within 2 hours, Work best for 2-5 hours and ends between 5-8 hours. Usually it is taken 3 times a day.
3. Intermediate acting Insulin known as N.P.H. It start working 2 hours after taking a shot, reaches at peak with in 6 hours , It work best for 4 hours and ends after 16-18 hours.
4. Intermediate acting Insulin known as Lente – Starts working within 2 hours after taking an injection , reach at its peak within 6 hours. It work best for 6-8 hours and ends after 18-24 hours. Its one injection in 24 hours is enough to control diabetes.
5. Long acting insulin known as Ultra Lente : Start working within 6 hour after taking a shot, reaches at its peak within 10 hours and work best for 10-18 hours. It ends after 24-28 hours. Most doctors recommend this insulin for children and young people to control type 1 diabetes. Its effect is reduced when taking for a long time.
6. 70/30 Insulin. This insulin is a mixture of 30% of Regular insulin and 70% of N.P.H. insulin. Regular insulin alone has tendency of large ups and downs in blood sugar.
When N.P.H. insulin is mixed in Regular insulin, a single shot of mixture is the best remedy to control blood sugar.
Blood sugar level of a normal healthy person should be as under :
Random : The blood sugar 2 hours after breakfast should be between 80-140 mg/dl. This is ideal. If it rises upt 180 mgl once a week , it is also acceptable if in other days of week it is between 80-140 mg/dl.
HbA1c Test: This test shows average blood sugar level for last 3 months period. Its reading should be less than 7%. 7% or above indicates that one has diabetes definitely.
Obesity: Obesity is the main cause of diabetes, specially if the fat is found on top of abdomen. A fatty fellow needs more insulin than a thin one and pancreas has to produce more insulin. Time come when pancreas get tired/weak and can not produce required amount of insulin. As a result , fatty fellow becomes victim of diabetes. If anybody’s waist size is more than 90 cm, he/she is at high risk of getting diabetes.
Tension: Tension is the second cause of diabetes Every body has different kind of tension. We can reduce our tension in some ways:
1. Share your worries with someone.
2. Watch a drama or movie.
3. Accompany your friends, listen some jokes and laugh. Listening to light music will also help to reduce tension.
4. Read books of your favourite interests.
Exercise: Most of the people don’t exercise regularly.They sit whole day. Fast walking for 1/2 hour daily will reduce the risk of having diabetes.
Diet: It is true that our diet habits are main cause of diabetes. Eating fatty foods bring us close to diabetes. Avoid to eat fats, sweet dishes, cookies, soft drinks etc. Better don’t eat mango, dates, sweet grapes and honey. These can be eaten in very small quantity occasionally. One or two banana, a piece of water melon, a small piece of pineapple, 2 figs, one apple, pomegranate, one piece of papaya, avocado, cherry, plum, litchi, orange etc are allowed to eat. Grape fruit and peach reduce blood sugar and are recommended to eat daily by many doctors.
A diabetic person who takes insulin, should eat his/her meals at fixed times, say breakfast at 08.00 am, lunch 1.00pm, afternoon tea with 2 biscuits at 4.00pm and dinner at 8.00pm. One fruit can be eaten at 11.00am. Two or three biscuit are compulsory with after-noon tea to avoid getting hypo between 5.00pm to 8.00pm.
Hereditary diabetes :If one or both of the parents , specially mother is diabetic, there are more chances that his/her children will be diabetic sooner or later. Actually diabetes does not transfer from parents to children. It is tendency to accept diabetes is transferred. If the children are not over weight, they exercise regularly, eat less sweet, maintain their body in good shape and eat moderately, chances of having diabetes are very low.
Usually a hard worker does not become diabetic patient. This principle seems to be wrong when we see many farmers , who work hard for whole day, are diabetic.Let us go deeper to find out why ?. In my opinion, beside other reasons, artificial fertilizers are on top. I belong to an agriculturist family. I have worked for whole day to cultivate crops.(around 65 years ago).At that time , animal fertilizer used to spread in the fields. The crops were growing very healthy . Wheat crop was among them. Every one used to eat bread of that wheat. I never saw any diabetic farmer. Then artificial fertilizers came and brought diabetes with them. These artificial fertilizers are used to grow and get more wheat..65 years ago farmer ruin the herbs in wheat crops by hands. Now a days they mix some poisons with water when watering the crops. Artificial fertilizer and these poisons include in the crop. Wheat of these crops have some parts of these poisons. When we eat this wheat, this poison effects on our tiny pancreas and destroy it making us diabetic. Diet Drinks : Biscuit manufacturers use a chemical to make sugar free biscuits. These chemicals are sweet but have no calories. 2 to 3 tablets of these chemicals are safe to take. A 30 ml/8 oz bottle of diet drink has 3 tablets of these chemicals. A new investigation reveals that people who drink more than one diet drink are facing deficiency of memory. More investigations are going on this topic.
Important Tests: Diabetes has very bad effects on our body specially on veins, eyes, kidney, teeth. It is recommended that a diabetic should carry out the following tests:
1. HbA1c. To check the average blood sugar level of last 3 months. Twice a year.
2. Blood Lipids : To examine cholesterol, triglyceride level in the blood. Once a year.
3 .Kidney Function Test (UFT) : It will show if our kidneys are functioning well. Recommended each 3 months.
4. Fundoscopy : This test is carried out if your eye sight is becoming weak.
5. Dental Exam. : If you have any dental problem.
6. Foot Exam : Diabetes usually attacks first on feet.It is strongly advised that feet should be examined by a hospital.
Pregnancy: A pregnant woman some time (not necessary) has symptoms of diabetes, which disappear after child birth. Nothing to worry about it . Diabetic pregnant women should take their insulin regularly. Visit your lady doctor every month. Maintain and control blood sugar.
1. Blood pressure : 80/120 . 80/130 for elderly persons.
2. Cholesterol : LDL = Less than 130mg/dl, HDL = 35-55mg/dl
3. Triglycetrides = 80-150mg/dl
4. S.Creatinine : 0.5-1.3mg/dl
5. Blood Urea = 15-49 mg/dl
1. When our pancreas stops producing insulin , we become diabetic.
2. Obesity is the main cause of diabetes. Fast foods and eating fats also play a big roll in getting diabetes.
3. We should try to keep our blood sugar between 80-108 mg/dl before fasting and not more than 140 mg/dl 2 hour after meals.
4. Insulin injection is the only effective weapon to fight against diabetes.
5. All tests should be carried out regularly.
6 . If you are taking insulin, keep some thing sweet like candy, chocolate, sugar etc in your bag/purse. Your sugar level can come lower than 80 mg/dl, called Hypo, suddenly. Eating any sweet thing will help to bring up your sugar level. A sweet drink can bring blood sugar level up in a short time.
May God save all of us from Diabetes