Mucormycosis or Black Fungus. Part – 1.
A potentially destructive fungal infection called as “Mucormycosis” generally known as “Black Fungus” has spread rapidly in India. Many stories about the cause and treatment of Black Fungus are circulating around. Some people are connecting it with Covid-19 infection. . In this article we will go trough its causes and treatment .
List of contents:
- What is Mucormycosis?
- Cause of Mucormycosis.
- Types of Mucormycosis.
What is Mucormycosis ?
Mucormycosis is a serious but rare fungal infection caused by a group of mold called ” Mucormycetes”. When a person is infected by these molds , his/her infected part of body is dead and it turns to black colour. And people call this disease as ” Black Fungus”, which is not correct. These fungi live in our environment These fungi are mostly found in decaying leaves and vegetables, rotten wood , soil, dust and animal dung.
Cause of Mucormycosis.
One will get Mucormycosis if he/she breath in an environment in which an infected person had breath . People whos immune system is weak, are the easy victim of Mucormycosis. The disease can also develop on the skin if the fungus enters the skin through a cut, burn or other skin trauma.
A group of fungi called “Mucormycetes” is cause of Mucormycosis. These are found in environment, specially in soil, decaying leave and vegetables, and animal dung. They are more common in soil than air, and more in summer and fall than in winter and spring. These fungi are not harmful to most people. People with weakened immune system breathing in mucormycetes spores may get infection in the lungs or sinuses.
Types of Mucormycosis.
- There are several types of the disease such as :
- Rhinocerebral ; infection in the sinuses that can spread to the brain. People with uncontrolled Diabetes and who have had kidney transplant may have this type of disease.
- Pulmonary: Lung Mucormycosis is the most common in people with cancer and people who had organ transplant.
- Gastrointestinal : This is common among young children than adults. Specially premature and having less weight at the time of birth , and had antibiotic , any surgery , with lower immune system are easy victim of the disease.
- Cutaneous: ( Skin ) : If there is a break or cut in the skin, like surgery, a burn or other wound occurs , fungi enter the body through them and cause the disease.
- Disseminated : It occurs when the infection spread to other parts of body through bloodstream . It affects to brain, spleen, heart and skin.
Symptoms of the disease are found on the affected area of the body. Details are as under
1- One sided facial swelling.
4- Black lesions on nasal bridge or upper inside of mouth that quickly become more sever . .
3- Chest pain.
4- Shortness of breath.
Cutaneous: It look like blister or ulcer and the infected area may turn black. Other infected area may turn black. Other symptoms include pain, warmth, excessive redness or swelling, around a wound.
1- Abdominal pain.
2- Nausea and vomiting.
3- Gastrointestinal bleeding.
Usually occurs in people who are already sick with other diseases, making it difficult to know which symptoms are related to this disease. Patients with disseminated infection in the brain may develop mental status changes to coma.
Your Doctor or hospital will consider your medical history, physical examination, and laboratory tests to diagnose Mucormycosis. They can collect a sample of fluid from your nose or respiratory system to find the exact place of infection. They may perform a tissue biopsy. For this purpose a small sample of infected tissue will be analyzed under a microscope or in a fungal culture in a laboratory. You may also need CT scan of your lungs, sinuses or other parts of your body to locate the exact place of infection.
Continued to part -2.