Covid-19, update in brief,
Part # 4
If you have not read “Covid-19 , update in brief, part #3” you missed a “must read” article of our site. Today’s article is part # 4 of the series. The new improvement in treatment and protection against Delta variant is the main object of this series. The latest news up to August 31 ,2021 are included. These are:
- The FDA announce that people who have organ transplant and other with sever weak immune system can receive a 3rd dose of the Pfizer-BioNTech or Moderna Covid-19 vaccine against the fast spreading Delta variant.
- Criminal are every where. Several doctor in France have reported that their health service accounts are hacked. French police is investigation the ” Covid-19 vaccine certificate fraud” , A group of criminal is issuing bogus “Covid-19 vaccine certificate”.
- As Covid-19 cases surge in U.S.A. many children are being affected by the disease.
- Have you ever heard about Delta Plus ?. Delta Plus is the latest version of the coronavirus. It was identified in India, in June 2021. There were 40 case of Delta Plus up to June 24, 2021. Its mutation does not seem to be great enough .Indian researcher believe that it does not appear that Delta Plus will be more contagious or more severe than Delta itself.
- As per a recent report by CDC, mRNA vaccine protection remains strong against the most severe effects of Covid-19 .
- Be careful. According to a “sweeping” analysis of U.K. data reported the Guardian , “fully vaccinated adults can have virus level as high as unvaccinated people , if they contract the Delta variant”.
- A new study finds that long-haul Covid-19 , referred to as “long Covid”, may be related to blood clotting issue.
- Some people experience long term effects of Covid-19. Expert are near to believe that long term Covid-19 may have a link with blood clotting. . The exact mechanism of clotting is still under investigation. Growing consensus revealed that Covid-19 activates the body’s natural clotting pathway in tissues where the disease has caused significant inflammation.
- Scientists reviewed data on cases of myocarditis and pericarditis in people vaccinated with an mRNA Covid-19 vaccine, they said the benefits are more than risks. (Myocarditis is inflammation on the heart muscle, and Pericarditis is inflammation on the two-layered sac surrounding the heart).
- Other viral infection can be cause of such condition , but cases in people vaccinated with mRNA Covid-19 vaccine are slightly higher than average.
- If you are confused and nervous about the side effects of Covid-19 vaccine, and you feel headache, you should not take any pain killer tablet before receiving the vaccine. Such pain killer may damage antibody production and seriously weaken parts of the immune response to the vaccine. Taking drugs after receiving vaccine are not a problem.
- Covid-19 vaccines have some side effects. If some one do not have any side effects, it does not mean that vaccine was not effective. The side effects are reflective of individual immune system and not of he efficacy of the vaccine.
- The Covid-19 vaccine may be less effective in some people with compromised immune system. Any how it may produce a weaker immune response.
- There are three Covid-19 vaccine available in U.S.A. that authorized to emergency use:
1 – Moderna.
2 – Pfizer.
3 – Johnson & Johnson.
All of the vaccines are effective and medical professionals do not recommend one over the other. Laboratory results of efficacy for each vaccine include:
1 – Pfizer: 95 % efficacy in preventing an infection in
people with no prior infections.
2 – Moderna: 94.1 % effective at preventing a symptomatic infection who have not previously
contracted corona virus infection.
3 – Johnson & Johnson: 72 % overall efficacy and 86 %
efficacy against severe illness.
The Moderna Covid-19 vaccine is an mRNA vaccine. These vaccine take a piece of genetic code from the SARS Covid-2 virus and deliver it to host cell in our body. Basically it gives the cell instructions on how to make copies of spike proteins. These proteins then start an immune response , and the body produces antibodies. If one contract SARS-Covid-2, his/her body recognizes it and the antibodies attack it.
- Scientists had hope that next generation of the vaccines would be so effective that population would develop hard immunity to SARS-C0v-2 , reducing the risk of infection.
- Laboratory studies have revealed that a very cheap generic drug reduces SARS-2 infection in human cells by up to 70%. (Great hope). The drug is known as “Fenofibrate”. It regulate cholesterol level . Beside that destabilizes the “spike protein” on SARS-Covid-2 and resist binding to human cells.
- There are three types of antibodies. Their study revealed when the antibody response was started and what was its purpose;
1 – IgM – antibodies developed early in an infection.
2 – IgG – antibodies develop a few weeks after infection. and provide the base to find out immunity after
3 – IgA – antibodies protect the surface of immune membranes through out the body.
- Each antibody is related to a different part of virus. Some antibodies respond to the body of the virus , and are called N antibodies, whereas others respond to the virus spike , and are called S antibodies.
- S antibodies are most important in neutralizing SARS-Cov-2. These antibodies prevent the virus from binding to human ACE2 receptors. ( ACE2 = Using he spike-like protein, the SARS-Cov-2 virus binds to ACE2, like a key being inserted into a lock, prior to entry and infection of cells. Hence ACE2 acts as a cellular doorway – a receptor for the virus that causes Covid-19).
- The Delta variant of SARS-CoV-2 is more transmissible than previous variants . Some people think or believe that existing Covid-19 vaccines may not be so effective in preventing infection for Delta variant. Scientist think that a booster dose of Coid-19 might be the best solution to prevent Delta .In this case manufacturers of Covid-19 might need some ingredient to add/remove in the formulae. Or manufacturing method will need some changes.
- Multiple studies has pointed out that Covid-19 is a zoonotic disease transferred from animal to humans. A recent paper supports this theory and discussed weather African swine fever might have some role in the in creation of Covid-19 pandemic.
- A new study show that opening of class room window in a school , to prevent spread of the new coronavirus is not enough. Key to reducing transmission is to limit horizontal airflow at the breathing Level. Therefore wearing face mask indoors is necessary.
- India has approved the word’s first DNA vaccine against Covid-19 called ‘ZyCoV-D”.
- A largest study of its kind analyzed the effects of CoVID-19 vaccines and found that they are safe and well tolerated for people who are pregnant, lactating or planning to get pregnant.
- A resent study shows that children under 4 years are a big source of transmitting the virus to their parents.
- How the vaccines work?. Vaccines activate T and B lymphocytes cells of our body to recognize the targeted virus and produce antibodies to fight against the virus.
- A vaccine does not contain a complete form of the virus. Therefore a vaccine can not cause Covid-19.
- Since the human body builds immunity, it is normal for a person to experience minor side effects.
- According to the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention and the World Health Organization , common side effects of a Covid-19 vaccine are:
1 – Fever.
2 – Fatigue.
3 – Headaches.
4 – Body aches.
5 – Chills.
6 – Nausea.
- Some people might also have swelling, pain, redness an itchy rash and other mild forms of irritation around injection site.
- It is reported that side effect appear most commonly in women.
- Multiple variant of the virus that causes Covid-19 are circulating around our world. Many variants have mutation in their spike protein, a path of the virus responsible for binding and infecting human cells.
- Mutation in the N501Y and E484K , parts of the spike protein are the main source of virus ability to spread more easily. These mutations also effects on immune system’s antibody response.
- In response to vaccination, T cells and B cells, which are part of our body immune system ,react by building up long lasting immunity to the virus. B cells are “memory cells” of the immune system. They produce antibodies that bind to the virus. T cells help B cells produce these antibodies. Some T cells also kill infected cell.
source: Medical News Today