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Covid-19 , Update – 1

                     Covid 19  – Update    # 1

Table of content:

  • Beginning of Covid-19.
  • Symptoms of Covid-19 new attack.
  • Treatment.
  • Search for a vaccine for Covid-19 epidemic 2020.

Beginning of Covid-19.

Covid-19  appeared in the beginning of last year  , 2020. It spreaded all over the world within a very short time. Our world has never seen  such fatal epidemic before. World Health Organization declared the Covid-19 pandemic in March 2020.

As of January 8, 2021 , the Covid-19 has taken 1.89 million lives globally. 87.6 million confirmed cases of infected people  reported. Please read more details in our article : Covid-19 is back 

In this article we will discuss  Covid-19’s 2nd fatal attack which has more complications. A study published in ” Lancet Psychiatry” shows that about 20% of  people effected with Covid-19 , develop a new mental illness within 90 days after survival . They also may ha

Symptoms of Covid-19 new attack :

  1. Brain : Strokes from blood clots,  Neurological issues.
  2. Eyes  : Pinkeye.
  3. Nose :  Loss of smell and taste .
  4. Blood : Unexpected blood clotting, attack on lining of blood vessels.
  5. Gastrointestinal  System  :   Vomiting and Diarrhea in some patients.
  6. Lungs :  Clog and inflames alveoli ( air sacs), difficulty in breathing.
  7. Heart  :  Weakens heart muscles, heart attack due to small
    blood clots.
  8. Kidneys : Damage  to structure that filters waste from blood.
  9. Skin    : Covid toes or fingers, a purple rash from the attack
    of blood vessels.
  10. Immune System  ; Wide spread impact , including over active
    immune response that attacks healthy tissues.
    source : WashingtonPost

From above facts, you can judge how dangerous is the  2nd attack of Covid-19.

Treatment :  Up till now, no 100 % treatment has been  found to cure the disease . However, there are some medications that can relief some symptoms. They are:
1  –  Baricitinib  : It has approval to treat Rheumatoid Arthritis. A                study published  in journal ” MBO Molecular Medicine”  has
shown evidence that Baricitinib has some properties which help
to reduce the viral load, decrease inflammation.
2  –  Remdisivir : This antiviral agent was designed to treat Ebola. It
is claimed to be beneficial to treat Covid-19 virus. It reduce the
recovery time.
W.H.O. does not recommend Remdesivir  for Covid-19 patients
already in the hospitals. The recommendation is a pat of a                   “living guidelines” on clinical care for Covid-19.
3  –  Researchers found that combining Baricitinib and Remdesivir
would be more effective than using either drug alone.
4  –  Monoclonal Antibodies : These antibodies trigger our Immune            System  to fight and attack on any virus like SARS-Cov-2 .                     These  lab-made    antibodies act like antibodies made by our               own immune  System. According to CNN network , early study
suggested that Monoclonal antibodies may reduce the rate of
hospitalization up to 70 % if they are taken in time.

Search for a vaccine for Covid-19 pandemic  2020:

W.H.O. declared the Covid-19 pandemic in March, 2020. Many companies of different countries started to look for an effective vaccine for Covid-19. Some of these companies are as under :

1  –     Moderna/National Institute of health:

The company began testing its RNA  (mRNA) vaccine in                      March 2020. In mid November Moderna official said that
their vaccine achieved  an effective  rate of  94 %  in initial                      phase 3  results. The FDA granted  “Trusted Source” , an
emergency use  authorization for the vaccine.

2  –      Pfizer/BioNTech/FosunPharma:
A team of researchers and scientists of Pfizer, BioNTech (a
German biotech company) and Chinese company Fosun
Pharma began to develop a 2-dose mRNA vaccine. On
November 9, 2020 the company  said that their vaccine had
been more than 90 % effective in clinical trial.  FDA granted
“Trusted Source” emergency use authorization on December
11, 2020. Pfizer vaccine needs to be stored in a special freezer
at a temperature between -60 and  -80 degree Centigrade
( -76 to -112 F ).

3  –         Inovio:
Inovio was already working   on a DNA Vaccine for MERS                   which  is caused by another coronavirus. The company
quickly develop a potential Covid-19 vaccine. Their vaccine
is not yet approved by FDA.

4  –  Sanofi/Translate Bio:
Both companies are working together to develop an mRNA vaccine since February, 2020. The preclinical testing of their vaccine showed that the vaccine could bring a strong Immune response in Mice and Monkeys.

5   –  CanSino Biologics :
Scientists of this Chinese company are working on a potential vaccine that uses an adenovirus known as AD5 to carry coronavirus protein into cells. The Chinese military approved in July, 2020 allowing the vaccine to be given to its armed forces. The company started phase 3 trials in Pakistan, Saudi Arabia and Russia in August
2020.

6   –     Gamaleya Research Institute , This Russian institute developed  a Trusted Source vaccine so called ” Sputnik V vaccine.” Sputnik V  vaccine  uses  adenovirus  Ad5 and Ad26
as a base , that delivers generic code that allows our cells to make SARS-CoV-2 spike protein. This protein uses a different adenovirus with the spike protein to deliver to a second booster dose.
Results of  phase 1/2 trial found that the vaccine elicited an Immune response with mild side effects. Phase 3 trials are currently under way in Russia, Belarus, United Arab Emirates and India.

7  –     Johnson & Johnson :

In late July, 2020 drug maker John & Johnson announced that their vaccine had shown promising results when used in monkeys. After phase 3 trials, the company is expecting the approval  from FDA  some time in February, 2021.

8   –    AstraZeneca/University of Oxford

Their  vaccine is based on a Chimpanzee adenovirus that shuttles coronavirus into cells. AstraZeneca began phase 3 trials in Brazil and South Africa. The company announced in mid December, 2020 that their vaccine was safe and 70 % effective

9  –      Sanofi/GSK/TranslateBio :
Their vaccine is based on proteins from coronavirus. When it is combined with another compound called an Adjuvant,  the protein show an Immune response.
Sanofi is also working with Translate Bio to develop a mRNA vaccine. The clinical trial were expected to begin in December, 2020.

10  –       Novavax :
Their vaccine is made by attaching virus proteins to microscopic particles. The company launched phase 2 trial in South Africa, phase 3 in U.K.. Phase 3 trial was scheduled in end of November, 2020 in U.S.A.

11  –    University of Queensland , Australia/CSL :

Scientists and researchers at the University developed a vaccine by growing viral protein in cell culture.

12  –    Wuhan Institute of Biological Products/Sinopharm :

Chinese company Sinopharm was testing an inactivated virus vaccine developed by Wuhan Institute of Biological Products. The company launched  phase 3 trial in United Arab Emirates in July, 2020 and one month later in Peru and Moroco.

13  –     Sinovac Biotech :

Chineses company launched phase 3 trials of its inactivated virus vaccine in Brazil some time in July . Indonesia in August and Turkey in  in September, 2020. Chinese government issued emergency approval for use on high-risk patients.

source : HealthLine

To be continued.

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