Know Human Kidneys

World Kidney Day will be celebrated on March 10, 2022, under the banner ” Kidney health for all “. In  this article ” Know your Kidneys ”  we  will discuss about Human  Kidneys, their function, their disease etc. This article is a part of our main topic of ” Diseases “. You might be interested to read our article ” Let us know our Cholesterol, part-1“.


  • Human  Kidneys.
  • Kidney Function.
  • Causes of Kidney failure.
  • Symptoms of Kidney failure.
  • Urine colour in Kidney failure.
  • Diagnostic tests.
  • Diabetes and  Human Kidney failure.
  • Complications.
  • Human   Kidney failure precautions.
  • Treatment.
  • Best foods for Human kidneys:

                      Know Human  Kidneys

Human  Kidneys:

Human  Kidneys are an important organ of the body. Kidneys are located  around our back bone, under our chest ribs, and look like a closed hand. Weight of a mature person’s kidney is about 142 – 160 grams, and passes   one to 1 1/2 liter urine daily.   There are millions of filters in a  human Kidney which Keep our blood purified and discharge the waste through urine. If these filters are damaged , Kidneys stop purifying our blood and blood waste mixed with  our blood.

Kidney’s function:

  • Human  Kidneys’  basic function is to filter our blood and discharge the waste through urine. Healthy Kidneys usually filter our 200 liters blood every day.
  • Human  Kidneys control the quantity of sodium, potassium and many other mineral substances.
  • Kidney help in  creation of red  blood cells process.
  • Kidneys regulate the function of vitamin D, which is responsible to keep our bones healthy and strong.
  • Kidneys remove excess fluid in our body.
  •  Human Kidneys keep balance of minerals and chemicals in our body.
  • Kidneys help to control  our blood pressure.
  • Our Kidneys produces some hormones .
  • Kidneys regulate pH in our body.
  • Kidney regulate the Osmolarity ( The concentration of particles dissolved  in a fluid).

Causes of Human  Kidney failure:

  • Many conditions can be cause of kidney failure, Two most common causes of kidney failure are:
  • High blood pressure.
  • Diabetes

Beside above a sudden loss of blood flow to the kidneys will affect kidney and kidney failure can occur.  Some conditions that cause loss of blood to the kidneys are:

  • Heart attack and heart diseases.
  • Dehydration.
  • Scarring of the liver or liver failure.
  • Allergic reactions.
  • Sever infection.
  • High blood pressure and anti-inflammatory medicines can also limit blood flow.

When human  kidneys can not pass urine, toxins accumulate in the kidneys and make them overloaded . Certain cancers can block the urine passageways . These include :

  • Prostate cancer. This is the  most common type in men.
  • Bladder cancer.
  • Colon cancer.

There are some other conditions which can interfere and could lead to human kidney failure . These are:

  • Kidney stones.
  • Blood clots in or around the kidney.
  • A damage to the nerve that control our bladder.
  • Enlarged prostate.
  • Heavy poisoning.
  • An inflammation of the blood vessels.
  • Drugs and alcohol.
  • An inflammation of the small blood vessels of the kidneys.
  • Certain antibiotics.
  • Uncontrolled high  blood sugar and high blood pressure.

Symptoms of Human Kidney failure:

Usually there are no clear symptoms in early stages of kidney failure. With the progress of the disease the following symptoms may appear:

  • Reduced amount of urine.
  • swelling of your legs, ankles and feet.
  • Drowsiness and fatigue.
  • Nausea and vomiting.
  • Short breathing.
  • Pressure or pain in chest.
  • High blood pressure.
  • Pain in the kidney area ( Lower back ).
  • Difficulties sleeping.
  • Itching.
  • Metallic taste in the mouth.
  • Muscle cramps.

Many of these symptoms are general and may point to other illness or conditions.

Urine colour in Human  kidney failure:

The colour of your urine does not tell much about your state of kidneys function. Any how change in urine colour is  a sign of warning that some thing is happen or going to happen to your kidney. Urine colour indicate the following condition:

  • Clear or pale yellow:  It indicate that you are well hydrated . It is the ideal colour in most cases.
  • Dark yellow : You are possibly dehydrated. Drink lot of water and  reduce drinking coffee, tea and dark sodas.
  • Orange: This indicates a dehydration or a bile in your bloodstream.
  • Pink or red ; If you have not eaten certain food like beets and strawberries, there is some blood in your urine.
  • Foamy: Urine with excess bubbles indicates there is lot of protein in the urine, is a sign of kidney disease.

Diagnostic Tests:

Kidney disease is sometime called  ” silent killer” , because its symptoms usually do not appear in the early stage. Kidney diseases are divided into 5 stags , from very mild  (stage 1 ) to complete kidney failure (Stage 5 0.


To find out the human  kidney health and present condition, the following tests are carried out:

  • Glomerular Filtration Rate ( GFR).  This test shows  how well your kidneys are working. It also indicate the stage of kidney failure. There is a graph  showing the stages .
  •  If   GFR is > 90 mL/min. Kidney is healthy .No Chronic Kidney Disease  (CKD) found  .
  • GFR decreasing between 60 – 89 is considered as moderate CKD. This is known as stage 2 . One should consult his/her doctor immediately.
  •  A reading of GFR = 30-59 mL/min., is a sign of   Moderate chronic kidney disease. It is still time to be remained in this stage 3 of CKD.
  • Stage 4 =   If    GFR  is between  15-29 mL/min, it shows severe  chronic kidney disease. If neglected , you are just one jump to complete kidney failure.
  • In stage 5 , with GFR < 15 mL/min.  kidneys are nearing or in complete failure. In this stage symptoms like vomiting, nausea, trouble breathing , itchy skin and more will appear.
  • Ultrasound , MRi and CT scan provide images of human kidney and urinary tract . These images help doctor to identify any blockage  or other problems.
  • Doctor may take your urine sample to find out any  thing unusual .  Doctor will find the presence of atypical protein and sugar that spills in urine. Red blood cells , white blood cells, bacteria level and high numbers of tube shaped particles called cellular casts are also counted.
  • Urine volume measurements. Urine output is measure for 12 or 24 hours to judge  kidney  health . If urine output is low, a urinary blockage might be cause of it.
  • Blood samples:  Ratio of   Blood Urea and   Creatinine are measured with blood test. Creatinine is a waste product released into the blood when creatine (a molecule stored in muscles) is broken down. The level of creatinine in the blood is  between 0.3 – 1.3 mg/dl. High level of creatinine shows  chronic kidneys disease.
  • A personal experience to lower down the blood  creatinine level : Eat white colour vegetables as salad daily.
  •  Human Kidney Tissue Samples:  Doctor may collect tissue sample by kidney biopsy, to examine unusual deposits, scarring or infectious organism .

Diabetes and kidney failure:

  • Diabetes type 1 and 2 are the main cause of human kidney failure. Un- managed or uncontrolled Diabetes not only damage the kidneys , it will affect on our heart and blood pressure remains high. Keeping blood sugar under control with medication and regular exercise can save us from early kidney failure.
  • High blood pressure is another main cause of kidney failure. Diabetes and high blood pressure  both need medications permanently.


  • Kidney failure produce various complications such as
  • Anemia :  A sick kidney does not help the body to create  red blood cells. In the absence of red blood cell, one’s face look pale. This is Anemia.
  • Bone  Weakness : A weak or damaged kidney will not balance the  minerals  such as phosphorus  and calcium resulting toward weakened bones.
  • Heart Diseases;   Heart diseases can lead to kidney failure or kidney failure can lead to heart diseases.
  • Fluid retention: : If kidneys are not filtering water from our blood , water will  affect or acc0mulate in your lower body and swelling will appear on your feet and legs.
  • Hyperkalemia : When kidneys do not function properly  the potassium  level in the body  raise high, which can lead to heart failure.
  • Metabolic Acidosis :  In case of  kidney failure, our body fluid contain too much acids which can cause many other complications, such as Liver  failure, Depression, gout, nerve damage, fluid build up in lungs and skin infections.

Human  Kidney Failure Prevention:

Once  human kidney is damaged, It is very hard or impossible to bring it back to 100 % working condition. Once a kidney damaged, some steps may help to lower the risk of kidney failure.

  • Avoid to take ” over the counter ” medicines. Always take medications prescribed by your doctor.
  • Do not take too high doses of any medicine , even a common drug.
  • Keep your Diabetes and high Blood Pressure under control.
  • Do exercise regularly.
  • Maintain healthy life style.
  • Follow your Doctor’s instructions strictly .
  • Lower your alcohol intake.
  • Limit Sodium and Potassium ; You should eat less than 2,000 mg per day of both. Limit the amount of Phosphorus per day less than 1,000 mg .
  • Consult your doctor before taking a calcium supplement.
  • Quit smoking, and drink plenty of water at least 6-8 glasses per day.
  • Limit certain foods such as animal protein, citric acid, oxalate , a chemical found in beets, spinach, sweet potatoes and chocolate.

Treatment :

There are two choice to treat  kidney  disease;

  • Dialysis:
  • Human  Kidney transplant.


Blood is filtered and purified by a machine. In this process a machine  perform the function of kidney. The Dialysis process is usually carried out twice or thrice a  week One session last about a whole day. Dialysis does not cure your kidneys. It just let you live comfortably if you go to regularly scheduled treatments.

Human   Kidney Transplant:

It is highly recommended by specialists for a kidney transplant instead of under going Dialysis on scheduled intervals for rest of your life. A close relative can donate his/her one kidney for kidney transplantation. A person can live healthy with  one kidney for a long period of time.

Best foods for  Human kidneys:

  • Cauliflower., a nutritious vegetable with vitamin C, K, B and flote.
  • Red Grapes.
  • Egg white. Garlic.
  • Olive oil.
  • Pineapple , have less potassium.

source : HealthLine

I pray to All-Mighty Allah to bless every one with good health and happiness.

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